Metabolic responses in endurance horses at exhausted syndrome

  • I.А. Maksymovych Stepan Gzhytskyi National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies Lviv, Pekarska Str., 50, Lviv, 79010, Ukraine
  • L.G. Slivinskа Stepan Gzhytskyi National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies Lviv, Pekarska Str., 50, Lviv, 79010, Ukraine
Keywords: horses, metabolic syndrome, myocardial dystrophy, hepatic and renal tests, blood lactate, electrolyte imbalance, exhausted syndrome


The article shows the results of the study of biochemical blood indices in sports horses. It is shown that in horses after exercise developing the metabolic syndrome which is a result of insufficient supply of organs and tissues of energy accompanied by development of dehydration, cytolysis syndrome, uremic syndrome, electrolyte imbalance. Evaluation of cardiac output in horses must be performed during and after physical exertion, when during latent disease manifests itself clinically. It is important to know the ways of flowing the course of metabolic processes that occur in the body of horses during physical activity of varying intensity. The most common reason for excluding horses from sports events is metabolic disorders and cardiovascular dysfunction. The aim of the work was to investigate changes in biochemical blood parameters in sports horses after physical exertion. The material for research was horses, which are used in classical equestrian sports. In all horses the general analysis and biochemical parameters of blood, characterizing the functional state of the organs (heart, liver, kidneys) were investigated. The most frequent in horses for physical overstrain is registered increased fatigue, dyspnea, tachycardia, less frequent arrhythmias. In sports horses after exercise develops dehydration (hyperproteinemia), uremic syndrome (increasing the concentration of urea and creatinine), cytolysis syndrome (activity increase of AST and ALT), electrolyte imbalance (decrease in serum sodium and potassium). Hyperlactatemia that occurs in horses during exercise causes changes in the permeability of cardiomyocytes and exit enzymes in the blood and can play a key role in the pathogenesis of myocardial dystrophy.  Installed tests can serve for early diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in horses for exercise.


Bergero, D., Assenza, A., & Caola, G. (2005). Contribution to our knowledge of the physiology and metabolism of endurance horses. Livest. Prod. Sci., 92(2), 167–176. doi: 10.1016/j.livprodsci.2004.11.019.

Braun, J.P., Lefebvre, H.P., & Watson, A.D.J. (2003). Creatinine in the dog: a review. Vet. Clin. Pathol., 32(4), 162–179.

Castejon, F., Trigo, P., Muñoz, A., & Riber, C. (2006). Uric acid responses to endurance racing and relationships with performance, plasma biochemistry and metabolic alterations. Equine Vet. J., 36, 70–73. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.2006.tb05516.x.

Chernaya, M.A., Dementieva, I.I., Morozov, Yu.A., & Gladysheva, V.G. (2010). Cardiospecific biomarkers in cardiology and cardiosurgery. Part 1. General characteristics of biomarkers. Cardiology and cardiovascular surgery, 3, 26–33 (in Russian).

Demircan, S., Yazici, M., Durna, K., Kilicaslan, F., Demir, S., Pinar, M., & Gulel, O. (2009). The importance of gamma-glutamyltransferase activity in patients with coronary artery disease. Clin. Cardiol., 32(4), 220–225. doi: 10.1002/clc.20345.

Dimopoulos, K., Diller, G.P., Giannakoulas, G., Petraco, R., Chamaidi, A., Karaoli, E., Mullen, M., Swan, L., Piepoli, M.F., Poole-Wilson, P.A., Francis, D.P., & Gatzoulis, M.A. (2009). Anemia in adults with congenital heart disease relates to adverse outcome. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., 54(22), 2093–2100. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2009.06.050.

Fernando, J.G., Claudio, C.Z., Leonardo, R.S., Lucia, P.S., & Denise, V.M. (2009). Possible relationship between perfor-mance and oxidative stress in endurance horses. J. Equine Vet. Sci., 29(4), 206–212. doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2009.02.006.

Fielding, C.L., Magdesian, K.G., Rhodes, D.M., Meier, C.A., & Higgins, J.C. (2009). Clinical and biochemical abnormalities in endurance horses eliminated from competition for medical complications and requiring emergency medical treatment: 30 cases (2005–2006). J. Vet. Emerg. Crit. Care, 19(5), 473–478. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-4431.2009.00441.x.

Flaminio, M.J., & Rush, B.R. (1998). Fluid and electrolyte balance in endurance horses. Vet Clin. N. Am.: Equine Pract., 14(1), 147–158. doi: 10.1016/S0749-0739(17)30217-1.

Francesca, S., Harold, C.S., Kenneth, W.H., Raymond, J.G., & Eduard, J.C. (2007). Electrolyte supplementation for endurance horses: effects of fluid losses and performance. AAEPProc, 42, 82–85. 2008/09/electrolytes_endurance_horses.pdf.

Golovaсha, V.I., Piddubnуak, A.V., & Chub, О.V. (2017). Erythrocytopoesis indexes in mares of the Ukrainian up-rider breed before and after parturition. Scientific notes UO VGAVM, 53(2), 119–123 (in Russian).

Golovaсha, V.I., Ushkalov, V.O., Zhуla, I.A., Kutsan, O.T., & Bobrovska, N.V. (2005). Diagnosis and correction of hepatorenal syndrome in horses with gastric fodder toxicosis. Bulletin of the Bila Tserkva State Agrarian University, 33, 19–30 (in Ukrainian).

Hisanaga, S., Ueno, N., Inagaki, H., Tokura T., Uezono, S., Yokota, N., Fujimoto S., & Eto, T. (1999). Exercise-induced acute renal failure associated with renal vasoconstriction. Nippon Jinzo Gakki Shi., 41, 406–412.

Kinnunen, S., Atalay, M., Hyyppa, S., Lehmuskero, A., Hanninen, O., & Oksala, N. (2005). Effects of prolonged exercise on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in endurance horse. J. Sports Sci. Med., 4, 415–421. pmc/articles/PMC3899657.

Kushakovsky, M.S. (2000). Metabolic diseases of the heart (Myocardia – myocardosis – myocardial dystrophy – cardiomyopathy). St. P.: Foliant (in Russian).

Lee, D.H., Blomhoff, R., & Jacobs, D.R. (2004). Is serum gamma glutamyltransferase a marker of oxidative stress? Free Radic. Res., 38, 535–539.

Lee, D.H., & Jacobs, D.R. (2005). Association between serum gamma glutamyltransferase and C-reactive protein. Ather-ossclerosis, 178, 327–330. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2004.08.027.

Maksymovych, I.A. (2017). Exchange of electrolytes in sports horse for exercise. Scientific Messenger of Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies named after S.Z. Gzhytskyj, 19(77), 100–104. doi: 10.15421/nvlvet7723 (in Ukrainian).

McKeever, K.N. (2004). Body fluids and electrolytes: responses to exercise and training. Equine Sports Medicine and Surgery. Basic and Clinical Sciences of the Equine Athlete, 2004, 854–871. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-7020-2671-3.50042-8.

Niedźwiedź, А., Maksymovych, I., Slivinskа, L., & Кubiak, K. (2017). Metabolic syndrome in horses. Scientific notes UO VGAVM, 2017, 53(2), 106–110 (in Russian).

Оhtra, T., Sakano, T., Igarashi, T., Itami, N., & Ogawa, T. (2004). Exercise-induced acute renal failure associated with renal hypouricaemia: Results of a questionnaire-based survery in Ja-pan. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant., 19(6), 1447–1453. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfh094.

Noleto, P.G., Cubas, J.P.C., Barbosa, F.C., Guimarães, E.C., & Mundim, A.V. (2016). Biochemical profile of polo horses in training phase and those players of official competition. Comp. Clin. Pathol., 25, 911–915. doi: 10.1007/s00580-016-2281-6.

Piccione, G., Arcigli, A., Costa, A., Percipalle, M., & Caola, G. (2003). Acid-base balance assessment during exercise in the show jumping horse. Folia Vet., 47(2), 91–94.

Piccione, G., Vazzana, I., Giannetto, G., Gianesella, M., & Ferrantelli, V. (2008). Modification of some hematological and hematochemical parameters in horse during long distance rides. Res. J. Vet. Sci., 1(1), 37–43. doi: 10.3923/rjvs.2008.37.43.

Poryadin, G.V., & Oskolok, L.N. (2011). Pathophysiological aspects of the metabolic syndrome. Therapeutics, 4, 1–10 (in Russian).

Pösö Reeta, A., Hyyppa, S., & Geor, R.J. (2004). Metabolic re-sponses to exercise and training. In: Equine sports medicine and surgery. Hinchcliff K.W., Kaneps A., Geor R.J. (Eds.), Saunders, China, 771–792.

Rose, R.J., & Hodgson, D.R. (1994). Hematology and biochemis-try. In: Principles and practice of equine sports medicine: The athletic horse. Hodgson D.H., Rose R.J., Saunders W.B. (Eds.), Company, Philadelphia, 63–78.

Rose, R.J., Ilkiw, J.E., & Martin, C. (1979). Blood-gas, acis-base and haematological values in horses during an endurance ride. Equine Vet. J., 11, 56–59. pubmed/34511.

Schott, H.C., Marlin, D.J., Geor, R.J., Holbrook, T.C., Deaton, C.M., Vincent, T., Dacre, K., Schroter, R.C., Jose-Cunilleras, E., & Cornelisse, C.J. (2006). Changes in selected physiological and laboratory measurements in elite horses competing in a 160 km endurance ride. Equine Vet. J., 36, 37–42. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.2006.tb05510.x.

Sewell, D.A., & Harris, R.C. (1995). Effects of creatinine supple-mentation in the Thoroughbred horse. Equine Vet. J. Suppl., 18, 239–242. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.1995.tb04928.x.

Singh, T.P., Nigam, A.K., Gupta, A.K., & Singh, B. (2011). Cardiac Biomarkers: When to Test? – Physician Perspective. JIACM, 2011, 12(2), 117–121. jact11i2p117.pdf.

Snaders, L.R. (1995). Exercise-induced acute renal failure associated with ibuprofen, hydrocholorothiazide and triamterene. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol., 5(12), 2020–2023.

Tarmonova, L.Yu., & Shutov, A.M. (2007). Anemia and renal dysfunction in elderly and senile patients with diastolic heart failure. Clinical gerontology, 13(11), 8–12 (in Russian).

Treiber, K.H., Hess, T.M., Kronfeld, D.S., Boston, R.C., Geor, R.J., Friere, M., Silva, A.M., & Harris, P.A. (2006). Glucose dynam-ics during exercise: dietary energy sources affect minimal model parameters in trained Arabian geldings during endurance exer-cise. Equine Vet. J., 36, 631–636. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.2006.tb05617.x.

Trigo, P., Castejon, F., Riber, C., & Muñoz, A. (2010). Use of biochemical parameters to predict metabolic elimination in endurance rides. Equine Vet. J., 42(38), 142–146. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.2010.00238.x.

Wanderley, E.K., Bem, B.C.S., Melo, S.K.M., Gonzales, J.C., Manso, H.E.C.C., & Manso Filho, H.C. (2015). Hematological and biochemical changers in Mangalarga Marchador horses after a hour-beat gait challenge in three different distances. J. Equine Vet. Sci., 35, 259–263. doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2015.01.009.

Yang, H.K., Hong, K.M., Seck, M.S., Kim, I.J., & Yong, K.K. (2007). The association of serum gamma glutamyltransferase with components of the metabolic syndrome in the Korean adults. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 77, 306–313. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2006.11.009.

Amosova, E.N. (2000). Metabolicheskaja terapija povrezhdenija miokarda, obuslovlennogo ishemiej: novyj podhod k lecheniju ishemicheskoj bolezni serdca i serdechnoj nedostatochnosti. Ukr. kardіol. zhurn., 4, 85–92 (in Ukrainian).

Lishnevskaja, V.Ju. (2008). Metabolicheskaja terapija pri IBS – iz proshlogo v budushhee. Consilium Medicum Ukraina, 1, 34–39 (in Russian).

Fernando, J.G., Claudio, C.Z., Leonardo Dos, R.S., Lucia, P.S., & Denise, V.M. (2009). Possible relationship between performance and oxidative stress in endurance horses. J. Equine Vet. Sci., 29(4), 206–212. doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2009.02.006.

Räsänen, L.A., Wiitanen, P.A., Lilius, E.M., Hyyppa, S., & Poso, A.R. (1996). Accumulation of uric acid in plasma after repeated bouts of exercise in the horse. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B. Biochem. Mol. Biol., 114(2), 139–144.

Andriichuk, A.V., Tkachenko, H.M., Kurhaliuk, N.M., Tkachova, I.V., & Vartovnyk, M.S. (2014). Zminy metabolichnykh reaktsii v krovi trybornykh konei v dynamitsi treninhu. Biolohiia tvaryn, 16(1), 9–20 (in Ukrainian).

Slivinskа, L., Maksymovych, I., Tkachenko, H., Andriichuk, A., & Leno, M. (2018). Cardiac enzymes activity and lactate concen-tration in the blood of sport horses at myocardial dystrophy. Scientific Messenger of Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, 20(83), 162–167. doi: 10.15421/nvlvet8331.
How to Cite
Maksymovych, I., & SlivinskаL. (2018). Metabolic responses in endurance horses at exhausted syndrome. Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, 1(1), 17-22.