Molecular characterization of STEC isolated from Ducks and its relation to ESBL production
The ESBL producing genes are responsible for bacterial resistance to number of antibiotics whereas Shiga toxin producing genes are responsible for bacterial virulence. The association between ESBL producing genes and Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) may pose bigger threat in the battle of antibiotic resistance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in ducks reared in organized and unorganized sectors from different agro climatic zones of West Bengal, India and to study their relationship with extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production. Total 202 cloacal swab samples were collected from both indigenous ducks reared in backyards sector (110 samples) and Khaki Campbell Ducks reared in organized farm (92 samples). Initially the samples were screened for detection of E. coli on the basis of their cultural, morphological and biochemical properties followed by PCR confirmation for E. coli 16S rRNA. E. coli isolates were subjected to multiplex PCR to detect the presence of shiga toxin producing genes such as stx1, stx2, eaeA and ehxA. STEC isolates were screened phenotypically for production of ESBL and ACBL by double disk diffusion method and subsequently PCR detection for blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV and blaAmpC genes were performed. Serotyping of all the STEC was also done. Out of 202 samples total 109 were confirmed to be E. coli positive. Out of them total 27 (24.77 %) E. coli isolates were detected to be positive for STEC. Higher prevalence of STEC was observed in unorganized sector compared to the organized sector. Positive association (P < 0.05) was observed between STEC and ESBL production. This study indicates that the duck may play an important role in transmission of Siga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) as well as antibiotic resistance genes to human beings, other birds, animals and environment also.
Cao, V., Lambert, T., Nhu, D. Q., Loan, H. K., Hoang, N. K., Arlet, G., & Courvalin, P. (2002). Distribution of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae in Vi-etnam. Antimicro. Agents Chem., 46(12), 3739–3743. doi: 10.1128/AAC.46.12.3739-3743.2002.
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2014). Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing: Twenty-fourth informational supplement, CLSI Document M100–S24. ISBN: 1562388975.
Espié, E., Grimont, F., Mariani-Kurkdjian, P., Bouvet, P., Haeghe-baert, S., Filliol, I., Loirat, C., Decludt, B., Minh, N. N. T., Vail-lant, V., & de Valk, H. (2008). Surveillance of hemolytic uremic syndrome in children less than 15 years of age, a system to mon-itor O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections in France, 1996–2006. The Ped. Inf. Dis. J., 27(7), 595–601. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e31816a062f.
Farooq, S., Hussain, I., Mir, M. A., Bhat, M. A., & Wani, S. A. (2009). Isolation of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Shiga toxin 1 and 2f‐producing Escherichia coli from avian species in India. L. Appl. Microbiol., 48(6), 692–697. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-765X.2009.02594.x.
Féria, C., Ferreira, E., Correia, J. D., Gonçalves, J., & Caniça, M. (2002). Patterns and mechanisms of resistance to β-lactams and β-lactamase inhibitors in uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from dogs in Portugal. J. Antimicrobial Chem., 49(1), 77–85. doi: 10.1093/jac/49.1.7.
Geser, N., Stephan, R., & Hächler, H. (2012). Occurrence and characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) pro-ducing Enterobacteriaceae in food producing animals, minced meat and raw milk. BMC Vet. Res., 8(1), 21. doi: 10.1186/1746-6148-8-21.
Jamshidi, A., Razmyar, J., & Fallah, N. (2016). Detection of eaeA, hlyA, stx1 and stx2 genes in pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from broilers affected with colibacillosis. Iranian J. Vet. Med., 10(2), 97–103. https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper. aspx?id=507695.
Hussein, H. S. (2007). Prevalence and pathogenicity of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef cattle and their products. J. Ani. Sc., 85(13), E63–E72. doi: 10.2527/jas.2006-421.
Karch, H., Tarr, P. I., & Bielaszewska, M. (2005). Enterohaemor-rhagic Escherichia coli in human medicine. Int. J. Med. Micro-biol., 295(6-7), 405–418. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmm.2005.06.009.
Karmali, M. A., Gannon, V., & Sargeant, J. M. (2010). Verocyto-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC). Vet. Microbi-ol., 140(3–4), 360–370. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.04.011.
Keen, J. E., Wittum, T. E., Dunn, J. R., Bono, J. L., & Durso, L. M. (2006). Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli O157 in agricultural fair livestock, United States. Emerging Inf. Dis., 12(5), 780. doi: 10.3201%2Feid1205.050984.
King, L. A., Filliol-Toutain, I., Mariani-Kurkidjian, P., Vaillant, V., Vernozy-Rozand, C., Ganet, S., Pihier, N., Niaudet, P., & de Valk, H. (2010). Family outbreak of Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli O123: H–, France, 2009. Emerging Inf. Dis., 16(9), 1491. doi: 10.3201/eid1609.100472.
Mahanti, A., Samanta, I., Bandopaddhay, S., Joardar, S. N., Dutta, T. K., Batabyal, S., Sar, T. K. & Isore, D. P. (2013). Isolation, molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of Shiga Tox-in–Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from buffalo in India. Letters in Appl. Microbiol., 56(4), 291–298. doi: 10.1111/lam.12048.
Mahanti, A., Samanta, I., Bandyopadhyay, S., Joardar, S. N., Dutta, T. K., & Sar, T. K. (2014). Isolation, molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and Necrotoxigenic E. coli (NTEC) from healthy water buffalo. Vet. Arhiv., 84(3), 241–250. doi: 10.1111/lam.12048.
O'Brien, A. D., Newland, J. W., Miller, S. F., Holmes, R. K., Smith, H. W., & Formal, S. B. (1984). Shiga-like toxin-converting phages from Escherichia coli strains that cause hemorrhagic co-litis or infantile diarrhea. Science., 226(4675), 694–696. doi: 10.1126/science.6387911.
Osek, J. & Gallien, P. (2002). Molecular analysis of Escherichia coli O157 strains isolated from cattle and pigs by the use of PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis methods. Vet. Medicina-Praha., 47(6), 149–158. doi: 10.17221/5819-VETMED.
Paton, J. C. & Paton, A. W. (1998a). Pathogenesis and diagnosis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections. Clinical mi-crobiology reviews, 11(3), 450–479. doi: 10.1128/CMR.11.3.450.
Paton, A. W. & Paton, J. C. (1998b). Detection and Characterization of Shiga Toxigenic Escherichia coli by Using Multiplex PCR Assays for stx 1, stx 2, eaeA, Enterohemorrhagic E. coli hlyA, rfb O111, and rfb O157. J. Clin. Microbiol., 36(2), 598–602. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9466788.
Quinn, P. J., Carter, M. E., Markey, B., & Carter, G. R. (1994). Vet. Clin. Microbiol. Wolfe Publication, London, UK. 254-258. ISBN: 0723417113.
Schroeder, C. M., Meng, J., Zhao, S., DebRoy, C., Torcolini, J., Zhao, C., McDermott, P. F., Wagner, D. D., Walker, R. D. & White, D. G. (2002). Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli O26, O103, O111, O128, and O145 from animals and hu-mans. Emerging Inf. Dis., 8(12), 1409. doi: 10.3201%2Feid0812.020770.
Tan, T. Y., Ng, L. S. Y., He, J., Koh, T. H., & Hsu, L. Y. (2009). Evaluation of screening methods to detect plasmid-mediated AmpC in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother, 53, 146–149. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00862-08.
Wani, S. A., Samanta, I., Bhat, M. A., & Nishikawa, Y. (2004). Investigation of shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli in avian species in India. Letters in Appl. Microbiol., 39(5), 389–394. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-765X.2004.01586.x.
Weill, F. X., Lailler, R., Praud, K., Kérouanton, A., Fabre, L., Brisabois, A., Grimont, P. A. D., & Cloeckaert, A. (2004). Emergence of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (CTX-M-9)-producing multiresistant strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Virchow in poultry and humans in France. J. Clin. Microbiol., 42(12), 5767–5773. doi: 10.1128/JCM.42.12.5767-5773.2004.