Non-surgical methods of regulation reproductive function and contraception males of domestic animals
The regulation of male reproductive function today is not limited to surgical castration; there are many other methods of controlling reproductive function. Non-surgical methods of controlling male reproductive function can be reversible and not reversible, i.e., reproductive function is preserved or completely suppressed. Castration of males or orchiectomy leads to irreversible sterility of the male, when the male completely loses the ability to reproduce. This operation can also entail some side effects: obesity, underdevelopment of the external genital organs, an increased risk of diabetes or hypothyroidism, problems with frequent urination and behavioral problems. Therefore, methods of non-surgical management of reproductive function and contraception in males are being actively developed. The article presents the latest methods of contraception and the management of the reproductive function of male domestic animals (cats, dogs): clinical application GnRH and agonists GnRH, Non-Peptide GnRH Antagonists, GnRH-Toxin Conjugate, GnRH Vaccines and other immune contraceptive vaccines, chemical sterilants for intratesticular injections, calcium chloride, zinc gluconate, chlorhexidine digluconate, hypertonic saline, sex steroids (progestines), gene silencing, kisspeptin and GnIH, targeting delivery of cytotoxins, single-dose hormonal male and female sterilianr, FSH – receptor ligand cytotoxin conjugates, Sperm Protein Reactive with Antisperm Antibodies (SPRASA) Reversible Inhibition of Sperm under Guidance(RISUG).
Cathey, M., & Memon, M. A. (2010). Nonsurgical methods of contraception in dogs and cats: Where are we now? Vet. Med., 105, 12–17. URL: http://caid.ca/NonSurgConDog2010.pdf.
Chauhan, V. S., & Guha, S. (2010). Jet injection delivery of a com-bined contraceptive and testicular function inhibitor into the epi-didymis and testicular tissue. Paper presented at: 4th Interna-tional Symposium on Non-Surgical Methods of Pet Population Control; Dallas, TX.
Chiu, W. W., Erikson, E. K., Sole, C. A., Shelling, A. N., & Cham-ley, L. W. (2004). SPRASA, a novel sperm protein involved in immune-mediate infertility. Hum Reprod, 19(2), 243–249. doi: 10.1093/humrep/deh050.
Concannon, P. W. (2006). Use of GnRH agonists and antagonists for small animal contraception (2006). Paper presented at: 3rd International Symposium on Non-Surgical Contraceptive Meth-ods for Pet Population Control; 2006; Alexandria, VA.
Cui, J., Smith, R. G., Mount, G. R. et al. (2000). Identification of Phe313 of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) recep-tor as a site critical for the binding of nonpeptide GnRH antago-nists. Mol Endocrinol, 14(5), 671–681. doi: 10.1210/mend.14.5.0464.
Dissen, G. A., Lomniczi, A., Boudreau, R. L., Chen, Y. H., Da-vidson, B. L., & Ojeda, S. R. (2012). Applying gene silencing technology to contraception. Reprod Domest Anim. 47(6). 381–386. doi: 10.1111/rda.12016.
Donovan, C. E., Greer, M., & Kutzler, M. A. (2012). Physiologic responses following gonadotropin-releasing hormone immuniza-tion in intact male dogs. Reprod. Domest. Anim., 47(6), 403–405. doi: 10.1111/rda.12017.
England, G. C. (1997). Effect of gestagens and androgens upon spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in dogs. J. Reprod. Fertil. Suppl., 51, 123–138. URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9404279.
Fagerstone, K. A. (2006). Mechanisms of GnRH contraceptive vaccine-mediated infertility and its applications. Paper presented at: 3rd International Symposium on Non-Surgical Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control; Alexandria, VA.
Fellmann, D., Pralong, C., & Risold, P. Y. (2006). Kisspeptins and GnRH. Paper presented at: 3rd International Symposium on Non-Surgical Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Con-trol; Alexandria, VA.
Fontaine, E., & Fontbonne, A. (2011). Clinical use of GnRH ago-nists in canine and feline species. Reprod Domest Anim, 46(2), 344–353. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2010.01705.x.
Gobello, C. (2007). New GnRH analogs in canine reproduction. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 100(1–2), 1–13. doi: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2006.08.024.
Goericke-Pesch, S., Georgiev, P., Antonov, A., Albouy, M., & Wehrend, A. (2011). Clinical efficacy of a GnRH-agonist im-plant containing 4.7 mg deslorelin, Suprelorin, regarding sup-pression of reproductive function in tomcats. Theriogenology, 75(5), 803–810. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2010.10.020.
Goericke-Pesch, S., Georgiev, P., Fasulkov, I., Vodenicharov, A., & Wehrend, A. (2013). Basal testosterone concentrations after the application of a slow-release GnRH agonist implant are as-sociated with a loss of response to buserelin, a short-term GnRH agonist, in the tom cat. Theriogenology, 80(1), 65–69. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2013.03.010.
Gupta, V., Roby, K. F., Kern, B. et al. (2012). KU-AS-272, a poten-tial single dose sterilant for cats and dogs, shows safety and block to spermatogenesis to Sertoli cell only testis after a single subcutaneous injection in male rats. Paper presented at: Annual Gilbert S. Greenwald Symposium on Reproduction; Kansas City, KS.
Jana, K., & Samanta, P. K. (2007). Sterilization of male stray dogs with a single intratesticular injection of calcium chloride: a dose dependent study. Contraception, 75(5), 390–400. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2007.01.022.
Jana, K., & Samanta, P. K. (2010) Clinical evaluation of non-surgical sterilization of male cats with single intra-testicular in-jection of calcium chloride. BMC Vet Res, 7, 39. doi: 10.1186%2F1746-6148-7-39.
Jana, K., & Samanta, P. K. (2010). History of calcium chloride injectable sterilization in male dogs and first report of use in cats. Paper presented at: 4th International Symposium on Non-Surgical Methods of Pet Population Control; Dallas, TX.
Kustritz, M. V. (2007). Determining the optimal age for gonadecto-my of dogs and cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 231(11), 1665–1675. URL: https://avmajournals.avma.org/doi/pdf/10.2460/javma.231.11.1665.
Kutzler, M., & Wood, A. (2006). Non-surgical methods of contra-ception and sterilization. Theriogenology, 66(3), 514–525. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2006.04.014.
Lacoste, D., Labrie, F., Dube, D. et al. (1989). Reversible inhibition of testicular androgen secretion by 3-, 5- and 6-month con-trolledrelease microsphere formulations of the LH-RH agonist [D-Trp6, des-Gly-NH10(2)] LH-RH ethylamide in the dog. J Steroid Biochem, 33(5), 1007–1011. doi: 10.1016/0022-4731(89)90253-7.
Leoci, R., Aiudi, G., Cicirelli, V., Brent, L., Iaria, C., & Lacalandra, G. M. (2019). Effects of intratesticular vs intraepididymal calci-um chloride sterilanton testicular morphology and fertility in dogs. Theriogenology, 127, 153–160. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2019.01.006.
Levy, J. (2010). A Look at Future Tools to Control Free-Roaming Cat Populations. Paper presented at: 4th International Symposi-um on Non-Surgical Methods of Pet Population Control; Dal-las, TX.
Levy, J. (2010). Current contraceptive approaches for feral cats. Paper presented at: 4th International Symposium on Non-Surgical Methods of Pet Population Control; Dallas, TX.
Levy, J. K. (2011). Contraceptive vaccines for the humane control of community cat populations. Am J Reprod Immunol, 66(1), 63–70. doi: 10.1111%2Fj.1600-0897.2011.01005.x.
Levy, J. K., Friary, J. A., Miller, L. A., Tucker, S. J., & Fagerstone, K. A. (2011) Long-term fertility control in female cats with GonaCon, a GnRH immunocontraceptive. Theriogenology, 76(8), 1517–1525. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2011.06.022.
Limmanont, C., Phavaphutanon, J., & Sirinarumitr, K. (2011). Effect of finasteride and deslorelin on clinical benign prostatic hyper-trophy in dog and disease recurrence after treatment cessation. Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 41, 166–167. URL: https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/20123000416.
Lohiya, N. K., Alam, I., Hussain, M., Khan, S. R., & Ansari, A. S. (2014). RISUG: An intravasal injectable male contraceptive. In-dian J Med Res, 140(1), 63–72. URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4345756.
Max, A., Jurka, P., Dobrzynski, A., & Rijsselaere, T. (2015). Non-surgical con-traception in male dogs and cats. Acta Sci. Pol. Zoo-technica, 14(1), 3–14.
Nett, T. M., & Jarosz, P. (2002). The potential of GnRH conjugates for use in chemical sterilization of mammals. Paper presented at: International Symposium on Nonsurgical Methods for Pet Pop-ulation Control; April 19–21, 2002; Callaway Gardens, Pine Mountain, GA.
Novotny, R., Cizek, P., Vitasek, R., Bartoskova, A., Prinosilova, P., & Janosovska, M. (2012). Reversible suppression of sexual ac-tivity in tomcats with deslorelin implant. Theriogenology, 78(4), 848–857. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2012.03.035.
Okkens, A. C., Eigenmann, J. E., & vd Weyden, G. C. (1981). Prevention of oestrus and/or pregnancy in dogs by methods oth-er than ovariohysterectomy (author’s transl). Tijdschr Di-ergeneeskd, 106(23), 1215–1225. URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ 7198829.
Oliveira, E. C., Fagundes, A. K., Melo, C. C., Nery, L. T., Rêvore-do, R. G., Andrade, T. F., Oliveira-Esquerre, K., Kastelic, J. P., & Silva, V. A. (2013). Intratesticular injection of a zinc-based solution for contraception of domestic cats: a randomized clinical trial of efficacy and safety. Vet. J., 197(2), 307–310. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.01.011.
Rhodes, L. (2010). Targeted delivery of cytotoxins for sterilization of cats and dogs. Paper presented at: 4th International Sympo-sium on Non-Surgical Methods of Pet Population Control; Dal-las, TX.
Rhodes, L. (2017). New approaches to non‐surgical sterilization for dogs and cats: Opportunities and challenges. Reprod Dom Anim, 52(2), 327–331. doi: 10.1111/rda.12862.
Robbins, S. (2004). Possible mechanism for the breaking of self-tolerance and achieving sustained immunocastration of GnRH in male and female cats. Paper presented at: International Symposi-um on Nonsurgical Methods for Pet Population Control.
Robbins, S. C., Jelinski, M. D., & Stotish, R. L. (2004). Assess-ment of the immunological and biological efficacy of two differ-ent doses of a recombinant GnRH vaccine in domestic male and female cats (Felis catus). J Reprod Immunol, 64(1–2), 107–119. doi: 10.1016/j.jri.2004.08.004.
Root Kustritz, M. V. (2009). Immunocontraception: Where are we with the “spay” vaccine? Paper presented at: CVC Kansas City, KS.
Root Kustritz, M. V. (2010). Optimal age for gonadectomy in dogs and cats. Clinical Theriogenology, 2, 177–181.
Sad, S., Chauhan, V. S., Arunan, K., & Raghupathy, R. (1993). Synthetic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccines incorporating GnRH and synthetic T-helper epitopes. Vaccine, 11(11), 1145–1150. doi: 10.1016/0264-410X(93)90077-B.
Samoylov, A., Cochran, A., Wolfe, K., Petrenko, V., Cox, N., & Samoylova, T. (2012). Phage-GnRH synthetic conjugates for immunocontraception of cats and dogs. 7th International sym-posium on Canine and Feline Reproduction.
Tash, J., & Roby, K. (2010). KU-AS-272, as a potential single-dose non-hormonal male and female sterilant for cats and dogs. Paper presented at: 4th International Symposium on Non-Surgical Methods of Pet Population Control. Dallas, TX.
Trigg, T. E., & Yeates, K. M. (2008). The development and use of deslorelin implants to suppress fertility – a synopsis and further advances. Paper presented at: 6th International Symposium on Canine and Feline Reproduction and 6th Biannual European Veterinary Society for Small Animal Reproduction Congress. Vienna.
Wang, X. J., Gu, K., Xu, J. S. et al. (2010). Immunization with a recombinant GnRH vaccine fused to heat shock protein 65 in-hibits mammary tumor growth in vivo. Cancer Immunol Immu-nother, 59(12), 1859–1866. doi: 10.1007/s00262-010-0911-4.
Whitcomb, R. (2010). ‘Gene silencing,’ immunocontraception in pipeline for nonsurgical sterilization. DVM, 41(2), 16–16.
William, W. Ja. (2010). FSH receptor ligand-cytotoxin conjugates: Potential for permanent chemosterilization. Paper presented at: 4th International Symposium on Non-Surgical Contraceptive Methods of Pet Population Control. Dallas, TX.
Yan Cheng, C., & Mruk D. D. (2010). New frontiers in nonhormo-nal male contraception. Contraception, 82(5), 476–482. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2010.03.017