Biotechnology of families’ strength influence on the processes of sucrose inversion, dehydration and accumulation of monosaccharides
The purpose of the work is an experimental substantiation of biotechnological processes that ensure the maturation of honey during the processing of nectar by bees. During the whole period (7–9 days) of nectar treatment by bees there is a simultaneous partial dehydration of the liquid and biochemical transformations, among which the hydrolysis of sucrose and the accumulation of monosaccharides have the most significant effect on the quality of the mature product. In all series of experiments, the maturity of processed honey in the beehive at the water limit of less than 20 % occurs after 5–6 days of treatment by bees. The mature product in terms of water content remains open in almost completely filled cells for another 3–5 days, slightly reducing the water content from 19.78–20.07 % up to 16.40–18.38 %. Dynamic changes in the ratio of monosaccharides and sucrose in the process of nectar processing by bees, starting from the honey stomach during gathering from flowers to sealing in honeycomb cells have been detected. At the honey stomach-cell stage, a small amount of sucrose is hydrolyzed during the incomplete first day of processing and, as a rule, 0.48–4.11 % of monosaccharides calculated relative to the dry weight of the product are added. Sucrose inversion is more intense during the next 5–6 days, when a total of 12.94–31.42 % of splitted sugars are added, depending on their initial number and strength of families. The main processes of conversion of nectar into honey by bees are characterized by the advance of the reduction of water content in comparison with the splitting of sucrose and the accumulation of monosaccharides. According to the water content (less than 20 %), honey becomes suitable for pumping 3–5 days before it is sealed in the cells. The influence of the mass of bees of different families on the intensity of sucrose inversion in the cells and the accumulation of monosaccharides in the product has been experimentally proved. The maturity of honey in the ratio of sugars in the beehives of strong families is better than in weak ones.
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