Influence of low temperatures on heat balance in easily assembled premises of different types
The purpose of this work was to analyze the thermal balance of easily assembled premises of different types and sizes during the periods of low average daily temperatures. The research was conducted during the winter period of 2020–2021 in the Kyiv region. The used material was easily assembled premises of different types and sizes: easily assembled ones without insulation elements; with elements of warming and premises with deep-litter. In each of the studied premises were kept 400 dairy cows. The studies were performed during two periods: the first period had ambient temperatures from -10 to -14.9 °C and the second one from -15.0 °C and below. In our studies, the average daily temperature (during the ambient temperature from -10 to 14.9 °C) in easily assembled premises with the use of insulation elements was 6.20 and 5.31 °C higher than in premises without insulation and deep-litter. A similar trend was observed during the period of lowering the ambient temperature up to 15 °C and below. Thus, the advantage of the premises without insulation constituted 6.28 °C, and of the premises with deep-litter per 5.84 °C, respectively. It was found that keeping in easy-to-assemble premises with insulation elements, the consumption of free thermal energy from the whole herd during the experimental periods was lower compared to the keeping in a boxing cowshed and a cowshed with deep litter. This is due to the smaller range of fluctuations in the average daily temperature in a room with insulation elements. A similar trend was observed for energy consumption through enclosing structures and for moisture evaporation and, accordingly, total heat consumption. In general, heat deficiency was observed during the keeping of cows in the investigated premises of easily assembled type at negative temperatures (-10–14.9 and -15 °С and above). Accordingly, the thermal balance of the premises was negative. The highest values of heat balance among easily assembled premises in both research periods were observed for keeping in rooms that used insulation elements.
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