Histostructure of the gray matter of the spinal cord in cattle (Bos Taurus)
The scientific article presents the results of investigating the spinal cord`s morphology of a domestic bull (Bos Taurus). Data on the histo- and cytostructure of the spinal cord are given according to the results of histological, neurohistological, and morphometric studies. For their implementation, the selected material (spinal cord n = 8) was subjected to fixation in 10–12 % neutral formalin solution, followed by pouring into paraffin. Histological sections were made from paraffin blocks on a sliding microtome MS-2 with a thickness of not more than ten μm. Staining of sections with hematoxylin and eosin, according to Van Gieson's methods, as well as neuro-histological methods of impregnation of nerve tissue with silver nitrate according to the Bilshovskym-Gross method, was used for the morphometric studies, investigating the morphology of the cell, conducting and obtaining the review histological preparations. The histostructure of the spinal cord, the localization of neurons in the gray matter, and morphometric studies of structural elements were examined on histological specimens by light microscopy. The entire experimental part of the research was conducted following the requirements of the international principles of the "European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals for Experimental and Other Scientific Purposes" (Strasbourg, 1986). The spinal cord, medulla spinalis, an organ of the central nervous system of vertebrates, is located in the spinal canal. The spinal cord is protected externally by soft, arachnoid, and hard meninges. The space between the membranes and the spinal canal is filled with cerebrospinal fluid. It is well known that groups of multipolar nerve cells with the same functional value form the nuclei of the gray matter of the spinal cord. According to the results of our histological studies, a pronounced differentiation of nerve cells, which have different shapes and sizes. Among them are large, medium, and small nerve cells. The shape of nerve cells is different, which, in turn, depends on their location in certain areas of the gray matter of the spinal cord and the size of the cell. In general, there are multifaceted, stellate, spindle-shaped, elongated, rounded, and oval neurons. Small nerve cells have an oval or round, less often – irregularly rounded shape, medium – round, oval, spindle-shaped. Large nerve cells are dominated by a multifaceted shape with distinct processes. The nuclei of large nerve cells, in most cases, have a rounded shape, less often – oval, mostly in the center of the cells, seldom – eccentrically. According to the results of morphological studies, it is noted that the neurons of the gray matter of the spinal cord have different shapes and sizes. Consequently, in the gray matter, small cells are the highest quantity (47.91 ± 0.32 %) of the total number of nerve cells. The second place is occupied by average neurons (33.70 ± 0.46 %). The large cells are detected in the smallest amount (18.37 ± 0.50 %).
Borshch, O. O., Gutyj, B. V., Sobolev, O. I., Borshch, O. V., Ru-ban, S. Yu., Bilkevich, V. V., Dutka, V. R., Chernenko, O. M., Zhelavskyi, M. M., & Nahirniak, T. (2020). Adaptation strategy of different cow genotypes to the voluntary milking system. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 10(1), 145–150. DOI: 10.15421/2020_23.
Clarke, H. A., Dekaban, G. A., & Weaver, L. C. (1998). Identifica-tion of lamina V and VII interneurons presynaptic to adrenal sympathetic preganglionic neurons in rats using a recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1. J. Neurosci, 85(3), 863–872. DOI: 10.1016/s0306-4522(97)00658-1.
Danchuk, O. V., Karpovskyі, V. I., Trokoz, V. О., & Postoі, R. V. (2017). Regulation mechanisms of cortisol level in pigs’ blood serum under stress. Fiziol. Zh., 63(6), 60–65. DOI: 10.15407/fz63.06.060.
Deuchars, S. A., Milligan, C. J., Stornetta R. L., Deuchars, J., & Deuchars, S. A. (2005). GABAergic neurons in the central re-gion of the spinal cord: a novel substrate for sympathetic inhibi-tion. Neurosci, 25(5), 1063–1070. DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2010.00142.
Eustachiewicz, R., Flieger, S., Boratyński, Z., & Sławomirski, J. (1980). Structure and topography of nucleus dorsalis in the spi-nal cord of horses. Pol. Arch. Weter, 21(4), 499–506. URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7208374.
Freire, M. A. М., Tourinho, S. C., Guimarães, J. S. [et al.]. (2008). Histochemical characterization, distribution, and morphometric analysis of NADPH diaphorase neurons in the spinal cord of the agouti. Front. Neuroanat, 2, 1–8. DOI: 10.3389/neuro.05.002.2008.
Gutyj, B., Grymak, Y., Drach, M., Bilyk, O., Matsjuk, O., Magrelo, N., Zmiya, M., & Katsaraba, O. (2017). The impact of endoge-nous intoxication on biochemical indicators of the blood of pregnant cows. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 8(3), 438–443. DOI: 10.15421/021768.
Horalskyi, L. P., Khomych, V. T., & Kononskyi, O. I. (2019) Osnovy histolohichnoi tekhniky i morfofunktsionalni metody doslidzhennia u normi ta pry patolohii [Fundamentals of histo-logical technique and morphofunctional research methods in normal and pathological conditions] Polissia, Zhytomyr (in Ukrainian).
Klosova, X. G., Bushueva, I. V., Parchenko, V. V., Shcherbyna, R. O., Samura, T. О., Gubenko, I. Ya., Gutyj, B. V., & Khariv, I. I. (2019). Trifuzol Suppositories Usage Results On The Course Of Endometrial Inflammatory Processes In Cows. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 10(1), 1215−1223. URL: https://www.rjpbcs.com/pdf/ 2019_10(1)/.pdf.
Kulyaba, O., Stybel, V., Gutyj, B., Turko, I., Peleno, R., Turko, Ya., Golovach, P., Vishchur, V., Prijma, O., Mazur, I., Dutka, V., Todoriuk, V., Golub, O. Dmytriv, O., & Oseredchuk, R. (2019). Effect of experimental fascioliasis on the protein synthe-sis function of cow liver. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 9(4), 612–615. URL: https://www.ujecology.com/abstract/effect-of-experimental-fascioliasis-on-the-protein-synthesis-function-of-cow-liver-44972. HTML.
Mann, M. D. (1973). Clarke's column and the dorsal spinocerebellar tract: a review. Brain Behavior and Evolution, 7(1), 34–83. DOI: 10.1159/000124397.
Molander, C., Xu, Q., Rivero‑Melian, C., & Grant, G. (1989). Cytoarchitectonic organization of the spinal cord in the rat: II. The cervical and upper thoracic cord. J. Comp. Neurology, 289, 375–385. DOI: 10.1002/cne.902890303.
Nogradi, А., & Vrbova, G. (2006). Anatomy and physiology of the spinal cord. Transplantation of Neural Tissue into the Spinal Cord, 2, 1–23. DOI: 10.1007/0-387-32633-2_1.
Patel, R., & DuPont, H. L. (2015). New approaches for bacterio-therapy: Prebiotics, new-generation probiotics, and synbiotics. Clin. Infect. Dis., 60(2), 108–121. DOI: 10.1093/cid/civ177.
Popele, R, & Bosco, G. (2003). Sophisticated spinal contributions to motor control. Trends Neurosci, 26(5). 269–276. DOI: 10.1016/S0166-2236(03)00073-0.
Porseva, V. V., & Shilkin, V. V. (2016). Stroenie serogo vesh-chestva spinnogo mozga: neopredelennosti i perspektivy issle-dovaniya. Tihookeanskij medicinskij zhurnal, 2, 20–30 (in Russian).
Sachuk, R. M., Stravsky, Ya. S., Katsaraba, O. A., Zhigalyuk, S. V., Kulinich, O. V., & Kushnir, M. I. (2019). Monitoring of ob-stetric pathology of cows in agricultural enterprises of Rivne re-gion. Scientific Messenger of Lviv National University of Veteri-nary Medicine and Biotechnologies. Series: Veterinary Sciences, 21(96), 117–123. DOI: 10.32718/nvlvet9621.
Shkol'nіkov, V. S., Prihod'ko, S. O., & Ocheretnyuk, A. O. (2018). Suchasnyi pohliad shchodo strukturnoi orhanizatsii spynnoho mozku liudyny. Visnyk problem biolohii i medytsyny, 4(2), 93–95 (in Ukrainian).
Sidashova, S. O., Gutyj, B. V., Khalak, V. I., & Humeny, O. G. (2020). Influence of complex action of probiotic and specific prophylaxis of associated mucosal diseases on some quantitative traits of dairy cattle performance. Scientific Messenger of Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies. Series: Veterinary Sciences, 22(97), 79–87. DOI: 10.32718/nvlvet9714.
Stepien, A. E., Tripodi, M., & Arber, S. (2010). Monosynaptic rabies virus reveals premotor network organization and synaptic specificity of cholinergic partition cells. Neuron, 68, 456–472. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2010.10.019.
Stravsky, Ya. S., Boltyk, N. P., Sachuk, R. M., Serheyev, V. I., & Rushchynska, T. M. (2020). The content of total protein and protein fractions in cows during pregnancy and their diagnostic value. Scientific Messenger of Lviv National University of Veter-inary Medicine and Biotechnologies. Series: Veterinary scienc-es, 22(99), 198–202. DOI: 10.32718/nvlvet9930.
Sysyuk, Y., Karpovskiy, V., Zhurenko, O., Danchuk, O., & Postoy, R. (2017). Zminy v vitaminnii lantsi antyoksydantnoi systemy koriv riznykh typiv vyshchoi nervovoi diialnosti. Naukovyi visnyk LNU veterynarnoi medytsyny ta biotekhnolohii, 19(78), 81–85. doi: 10.15421/nvlvet7816 (in Ukrainian).
Tang, X., Neckel, N. D., & Schramm, L. P. (2003). Locations and morphologies of sympathetically correlated neurons in the T10 spinal segment of the rat. Brain Res, 976, 185–193. DOI: 10.1016/s0006-8993(03)02601-5.
Yablons'ka, O. V. (2019). Vykorystannia laboratornykh tvaryn u eksperymentakh: metod. Vkazivky. K.: Vid. centr NAU, 3–16. (in Ukrainian).
Zhurenko, O. V., Karpovskiy, V. I., Danchuk, О. V., & Kravchenko-Dovga, Yu. V. (2018). Тhe content of calcium and phosphorus in the blood of cows with a different tonus of the autonomic nervous system. Scientific Messenger of Lviv Nation-al University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, 20(92), 8–12. DOI: 10.32718/nvlvet9202.
Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.