The influence of global warming on the productivity and quality of cow's milk

Keywords: weather, temperature rise, milk, productivity, energy value


The objective of this research was to analyze the dynamics of productivity, quality composition and energy value of cow's milk obtained during three periods (3 years each) in central Ukraine by various technological housing variants. Over the last 20 years, there has been a global trend towards of increasing in the average annual temperature, which is especially felt in winter and affects to the cattle body, their productivity and the energy value of milk. To more effectively overcome the consequences of changing weather conditions, various continentally-achieved spatial composition and types of facility for livestock housing are used, the impact of which is not sufficiently studied. We analyzed the main weather indicators for the last decade in the central part of the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine (Kyiv region). The time period from 2011 to 2019 was conditionally divided into three periods (3 years each): I moderate, whose main weather indicators corresponded to the average long-term (30 years) values inherent in this natural and climatic zone; II (with a deviation of +0.6 °C from normal values) and III (with a deviation of +0.9 °C from normal values). During cubicle housing in low cost facilities was observed that productivity increased by 0.19 and 0.97 kg in II and III periods compared to I. During cubicle housing in facilities with insulation systems productivity gradually increased by 0.47 kg during II periods and by 0.92 kg during III periods. The most uniform productivity indicators were observed by housing on a deep litter among low cost facilities. Thus, productivity increased by 0.24 kg during II periods period, and in III period it increased by 0.47 kg compared to the I period. The dynamics of average daily productivity have a slightly more uniform by housing in capital facilities compared to low cost facilities. During tie housing productivity increased by 0.18 kg in II periods, and in III periods it increased by 0.32 kg. Productivity increased by 0.19 and 0.43 kg in reconstructed capital facilities during II and III periods.


Angrecka, S., & Herbut, P. (2015). Conditions for cold stress development in dairy cattle kept in the free-stall barn during severe frosts. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 60, 81–87.

Borshch, A. A., Ruban, S., Borshch, A. V., & Babenko, O. (2019). Effect of three bedding materials on the microclimate conditions, cows behavior and milk yield. Polish Journal of Natural Sciences, 34, 19–31. URL: BNAU/2091.

Borshch, O. O., Borshch, O. V., Kosior, L. T., Pirova, L. V., & Lastovska, I. O. (2017). Influence of various litter materials and premises characteristics on the comfort and behavior of cows. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 7(4), 529–535. DOI: 10.15421/2017_156.

Borshch, O. O., Ruban, S. Yu., Gutyj, B. V., Borshch, O. V., Sobolev, O. I., Kosior, L. T., Fedorchenko, M. M., Kirii, A. A., Pivtorak, Y. I., Salamakha, I. Yu., Hordiichuk, N. M., Hordiichuk, L. M., Kamratska, O. I., & Denkovich, B. S. (2020a). Comfort and cow behavior during periods of intense precipitation. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 10(6), 98–102. DOI: 10.15421/2020_265.

Borshch, O. O., Gutyj, B. V., Borshch, O. V., Sobolev, O. I., Chernyuk, S. V., Rudenko, O. P., Kalyn, B. M., Lytvyn, N. A., Savchuk, L. B., Kit, L. P., Nahirniak, T. B., Kropyvka, S. I., & Pundyak, T. O. (2020b). Environmental pollution is caused by the manure storage. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 10(3), 110–114. DOI: 10.15421/2020_142.

Borshch, O. O., Ruban, S., & Borshch, O. V. (2021a). Review: the influence of genotypic and phenotypic factors on the comfort and welfare rates of cows during the period of global climate changes. Agraarteadus, 32(1), 25–34. doі: 10.15159/jas.21.12.

Borshch, O. O., Borshch, O. V., Sobolev, O. I., Nadtochii, V. M., Slusar, M. V., Gutyj, B. V., Polishchuk, S. A., Malina, V. V., Korol, A. P., Korol-Bezpala, L. P., Bezpalyi, I. F., & Cherniavskyi, O. O. (2021b). Wind speed in easily assembled premises with different design constructions for side curtains in winter. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 11(1), 325–328. DOI: 10.15421/2021_49.

Dosio, A. (2016). Projections of climate change indices of temperature and precipitation from an ensemble of bias-adjusted high-resolution EURO-CORDEX regional climate models. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 121, 5488–5511. DOI: 10.1002/2015JD024411.

Fodor, N., Foskolos, A., Topp, C. F. E, Moorby, J. M, Pasztor, L., & Foyer, C. H. (2018). Spatially explicit estimation of heat stress-related impacts of climate change on the milk production of dairy cows in the United Kingdom. PLoS ONE, 13(5), e0197076. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0197076.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The Impact of Disasters on Agriculture – Assessing the information gap. Available at:, 2017.

Galán, E., Llonch, P., Villagrá, A., Levit, H., Pinto, S., & del Prado, A. (2018). A systematic review of nonproductivity-related animal-based indicators of heat stress resilience in dairy cattle. PLoS ONE, 13, e0206520. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0206520.

Graunke, K. L., Schuster, T., & Lidfors, L. M. (2011). Influence of weather on the behaviour of outdoor-wintered beef cattle in Scandinavia. Livestock Science, 136(2-3), 247–255. DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2010.09.018.

Hempel, S., Menz, C., Pinto, S., Galan, E., Janke, D., Estellés, F., Müschner-Siemens, T., Wang, X., Heinicke, J., Zhang, G., Amon, B., del Prado, A., & Amon, T. (2019). Heat stress risk in European dairy cattle husbandry under different climate change scenarios – uncertainties and potential impacts. Earth System Dynamics, 10, 859–884. DOI: 10.5194/esd-10-859-2019.

Kjellström, E., Nikulin, G., Strandberg, G., Christensen, O. B., Jacob, D., Keuler, K., Lenderink G., van Meijgaard E., Schär C., Somot S., Sørland S.L., Teichmann C., & Vautard, R. (2018). European climate change at global mean temperature increases of 1.5 and 2 °C above pre-industrial conditions as simulated by the EURO-CORDEX regional climate models. Earth System Dynamycs, 9, 459–478. doi: 10.5194/esd-9-459-2018.

Nardone, A., Ronchi, B., Lacetera, N., Ranieri, M. S., & Bernabucci, U. (2010). Effects of climate changes on animal production and sustainability of livestock systems. Livestock Science, 130, 57–69. DOI: 10.1016/j.livsci.2010.02.011.

NRC (2001). Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th rev. ed. National. Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, USA, 381.

Pol`ova, O. L. (2013). Application of the profit-saving ratio in dairy farming. Methodological recommendations (in Ukrainian).

Ruban, S. Yu., Borshch, O. V., & Borshch, O. O. (2017). Suchasni tekhnolohiyi vyrobnytstva moloka. (osoblyvosti ekspluatatsiyi, tekhnolohichni rishennya, eskizni property) [Modern milk production technologies. (peculiarities of operation, technological decisions, sketch designs)]. Kharkiv: STYLIZDAT (in Ukrainian).

Ruban, S., Borshch, O. O., Borshch, O. V., Orischuk, O., Balatskiy, Y., Fedorchenko, M., Kachan, A., & Zlochevskiy, M. (2020). The impact of high temperatures on respiration rate, breathing condition and productivity of dairy cows in different production systems. Animal Science Papers and Reports, 38(l), 61–72. URL:

Silanikove, N., & Koluman (Darcan), N. (2015). Impact of climate change on the dairy industry in temperate zones: Predications on the overall negative impact and on the positive role of dairy goats in adaptation to earth warming. Small Ruminant Research, 123, 27–34. DOI: 10.1016/j.smallrumres.2014.11.005.

Vitt, R., Weber, L., Zollitsch, W., Hörtenhuber, S. J., Baumgartner, J., Niebuhr, K., Piringer, M., Anders, I., Andre, K., Hennig-Pauka, I., Schönhart, M., & Schauberger, G. (2017). Modelled performance of energy saving air treatment devices to mitigate heat stress for confined livestock buildings in Central Europe. Biosystems Engineering, 164, 85–97. doi: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.09.013.

World Meteorological Organization Statement on the state of the global climate in 2017, in: WMO-No.1212, Publications Board WMO, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2018.
How to Cite
Borshch, O. (2021). The influence of global warming on the productivity and quality of cow’s milk. Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, 4(3), 22-27.